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Tajikistan Information - Page 2
History
"Tajikistan" has been inhabited since the Stone Age. Over the centuries there has been migration of people and changes in country boundaries.

Tajik people lived in the Pamir Mountains of "Tajikistan". The land of the Tajiks came under the influence of a number of empires including those of the Persians, Alexander of Macedon, Arabs, Samanids, Qarakhanid Turks, Mongols, Uzbeks and Russians.

By the end of the nineteenth century present-day Tajikistan was under the control of Russia. Following the Russian Revolution (1917) the Tajik people took the opportunity to rebel against Russian rule. However by 1921 the region was part of Russian Turkestan.

Turkestan became part of the USSR and in 1924 Uzbeks and Tajiks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyzes and Turkmen were divided into separate republics within the Soviet Union. Tajikistan was created as an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Uzbekistan. In 1929 Tajikistan was separated from Uzbekistan and became a Soviet Socialist Republic. Members of the former USSR were Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Estonia - from WW2, Latvia - from WW2, Lithuania - from WW2 and Moldova - from WW2.

Following the Second World War, a "Cold War" existed between the USSR and the West. This situation continued until Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985 introducing extensive political and economic reforms (Perestroika) and calling for a greater openness (Glasnost) between nations.

At the end of 1991 the USSR was dissolved and Tajikistan became independent joining the Commonwealth of Independent States (a federation of former Soviet Union republics).

In 1992 civil war broke out in Tajikistan and lasted until 1997.

Economy
Following independence from the USSR Tajikistan suffered a long civil war (1992-97). To help recovery the country received aid from the International Monetary Fund, Russia and Uzbekistan.

Tajikistan's economy has traditionally been dominated by the agricultural sector. Today, industry and services contribute more than agriculture to the Gross Domestic Product. However, agriculture provides a livelihood for a large percentage of the working population.

Cotton is the most important crop produced for export. Other agricultural products are grain, vegetables and fruits: apricots, grapes, lemons and melons. Sheep, goats, cattle and yaks are reared.

Hydropower and aluminum are significant resources. Industries include mining, chemicals, fertilizers, cement, machine tools, refrigerators and freezers, textiles and food processing.

The National Tourism Company of the Republic of Tajikistan is keen to promote the country's health resorts, national parks and historical centres. (2008)

Arts
Music and the oral literary tradition are combined by travelling akyns or minstrels. Over the years epic stories have been remembered by akyns whose role has been the transmission of legends, history and culture.

The arts flourished during the rule of the Persian Samanids (874-999). It was in this era that the famous poet known as Rudaki wrote thousands of poems, many of which are still read today.

Cultural institutions in Tajikistan include theatres for music, dance and drama.

Sport
Horse racing and games played on horseback, such as Buzkachi, have been played in Tajikistan for centuries. Falconry is also a traditional sport.

Popular sports in Tajikistan include athletics, football and martial arts.

The mountainous terrain provides opportunities for a variety of sports such as climbing and skiing.

Holidays
Islamic holy days are celebrated. Other holidays include New Year's Day (l January), Women's Day (8 March), Nauryz - Spring Festival (22 March), International Labour Day (1 May), Victory Day (9 May) and Independence Day (9 September).

News
News is available in Newslink.

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