World InfoZone - WIZ Around The World
Thursday 14th December
Romania Information - Page 2
History
Romania, inhabited since the Stone Age, has been controlled by various empires.

In early times, part of present-day Romania was called Dacia after its inhabitants, the Dacians. In the seventh and sixth centuries BC Greeks settled in Dacia and later in 106 AD the Romans made it a Roman province. The Romans left Romania around 271 AD leaving the country open to invasion by nomadic tribes from Europe and Asia: Goths, Vandals, Huns, Slavs and Magyars.

By the eleventh century the Transylvanian region of Romania was dominated by the Magyars (Hungarians). The principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia managed to remain independent until the sixteenth century when they succumbed to the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Following the Battle of the Mohacs (between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire in 1526) Transylvania came under the control of the Ottomans and later, the Austrians.

From the nineteenth century until the end of the Second World War the historical principality of Moldavia went through a number of boundary changes; sometimes it was within the borders of Romania and other times it was partly within the borders of Russian Ukraine (The Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova was established in 1947).

Romania did not become a unified country until the second half of the nineteenth century. Karl of Hohenzollern, a German prince, was chosen as the country's ruler and became King Carol I of Romania in 1881.

During the First World War Romania remained neutral until 1916 when it aligned itself with Britain, France and other Allies. Again, during the Second World War, Romania started off as a neutral country. However, by 1940 territorial losses led to King Carol's abdication in favour of his son, but passing power to Premier Ion Antonescu. Antonescu worked with Germany and Romania was occupied by German troops. In 1944 a coup d'etat, supported by the King, overthrew Antonescu and withdrew support from Germany. Once the Germans had been expelled, the Romanian army helped to liberate its neighbours, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

After the war, in 1947, Romania became a communist Peoples Republic. Romania was a satellite of the USSR but in the early 1960s overtures were made towards trade with Western countries.

In 1965 Nicolae Ceausescu became the Secretary General of the Romanian Communist Party and ruled Romania until he was overthrown and executed in 1989.

1991 saw the dissolution of the USSR and in 1993 Romania continued to look towards the West becoming a member of the European Council. In 2007 Romania joined the European Union.

Economy
With the collapse of the USSR (1989-91) Romania needed to reform its economy. By the beginning of the new century, Romania was exporting to EU markets. Romania was not ready for the wave of EU memberships in 2004 but joined the EU in January 2007.

Agriculture provides the smallest percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but employs a significant percentage of the population. Agricultural products include grains, potatoes, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, grapes and dairy products. Sheep are reared.

Industries are mining, metallurgy, timber, construction materials, auto assembly, light machinery, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, footwear and food processing. The country is also a major wine producer.

The service sector earns the largest percentage of the GDP, employing the largest percentage of the working population.

Romania is keen to promote its tourist attractions, especially the Black Sea Coast, the Danube Delta, Transylvania and Maramures. (2008)

Arts
The earliest evidence of the arts in Romania date back to ten thousand year-old cave paintings in northwest Transylvania and examples of Neolithic pottery.

Leading Romanian painters include the portrait painter Theodor Aman (1831-91) and the landscape painter Nicolae Grigorescu (1838-1907). Constantin Brancusi (1876-1956), the famous sculptor, attended the Bucharest School of Fine Arts before moving to Paris in 1904.

Well known Romanian writers include the narrative poet and dramatist Vasile Alecsandri (1821-90), the poet Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889), the novelist Mihail Sadoveanu (1880-1961) and the playwright Eugene Ionesco (1912-1994).

Famous Romanian musicians are George Enescu (1881-1955), the violinist and composer, known for Romanian rhapsodies, Dinu Lipatti (1917-1950), pianist and composer, and Angela Gheorghiu, the Romanian soprano.

Sport
Football is a very popular sport with a number of international players.

Romania is also successful in a number of other sports at international level.

The gymnast Nadia Comaneci was the first gymnast to score a perfect ten (1976 Montreal Olympic Games). She also won three gold medals, one silver and one bronze - all at the age of fourteen. Her success continued in the 1980 Moscow Olympics when she was awarded two gold medals and two silver medals.

Ilie Nastase, the tennis player, is another internationally known Romanian sports star.

In the winter months the weather is suitable for skiing.

Holidays
Christian holidays of Christmas and Easter are celebrated. Other holidays are New Year's Day, Labour Day and the National Day of Romania.

News
News from Romania is available from Newslink.

Previous Page | Facts | Gallery
Romania Sections
Information
Geography Environment
Architecture Population
Languages Religion
Food History
Economy Arts
Sport Holidays
News
Facts
Facts
Gallery
Gallery

Romania
Read Mountains of Romania

Features
Gorham's Cave Complex

The Twickenham Tribune

Terms Of Use
Terms of Use and

Stockholm Challenge

Rome GJC Challenge

© 1997 - 2017 World InfoZone Ltd