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Montenegro Information - Page 2
History
Like its neighbours, Montenegro suffered from the expansionism of the Ottoman Turks. To escape the invaders, Montenegrins founded a new capital in a higher and rugged region around Mount Lovcen (1482).

It was not until the early nineteenth century that the Ottoman Empire weakened. Later, in 1878, the Congress of Berlin recognised Montenegro as an independent nation. The Ottomans were not finally driven from Europe until the Balkan Wars (1912-1913).

The year following the Balkan Wars, the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne was assassinated in Sarajevo. As the assassin was a Bosnian Serb, Austria attacked Serbia, beginning the First World (1914 to 1918).

The formation of the Kingdom of Serbians, Croats and Slovenes followed the War - the Kingdom included Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Macedonia. In 1929 the name of the Kingdom was changed to Yugoslavia.

After the Second World War (1939-45) Yugoslavia became the Federal Peoples' Republic of Yugoslavia consisting of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia. Serbia also had two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina (with a high Serb population) in the north and Kosovo (with a high Albanian population) in the south. Montenegro was a republic within the Federation with its own constitution and legal status.

Although Yugoslavia (1945-1991) had a communist government, the country's leader, Josip Broz "Tito" distanced himself from the USSR. After Tito's death (1980) there was a struggle for political control of the country and in 1991 the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia disintegrated: Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia declared independence followed by Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbia and Montenegro became known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).

The break-up of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia resulted in military actions by the Yugoslav army and a civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kosovo suffered inter-ethnic unrest and civil war leading to the US-NATO aerial bombardment of Serbia and the deployment of KFOR (NATO-led peacekeeping force K-For) and UNMIK (United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo) to secure and administer the Kosovo region on behalf of the international community.

The end of the year 2000 saw a newly elected government in Serbia. In 2002 an agreement was signed by Serbian and Montenegrin officials redefining relations between Serbia and Montenegro. A decision was made to change the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to Serbia and Montenegro.

Montenegro held an independence referendum in 2006 under rules set by the EU. Montenegro formally declared its independence from Serbia on 3 June 2006.

Economy
The economic situation in Serbia and Montenegro suffered from wars following the break-up of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. With the change in government, towards the end of 2000, aid was forthcoming from members of the international community.

In the summer of 2006 the political union between Serbia and Montenegro was dissolved.

Montenegro's important aluminum industry has been privatised. Other industries include steelmaking, consumer goods and agricultural processing.

Agricultural products are grains, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes and tobacco. Sheep are reared and there is a commercial fishing industry.

Montenegro's tourist industry is keen to expand. Specialist areas of tourism are Mediterranean coastal resorts, spas, fishing and winter sports. (2008)

Arts
Cultural events, such as performances of folk music, take place throughout Montenegro. Cultural institutions include the National Theatre of Montenegro and the Symphony Orchestra of Montenegro.

Montenegrin Matica, a social and cultural organization, aims to promote the cultural identity of Montenegrins and other people who live in Montenegro in all fields of spiritual, scientific, and artistic creativity.

Sport
Football, volleyball and basketball are among sports played in Montenegro. Yugoslavia won the World Basketball Championships a number of times.

In the mountains there are opportunities for hiking and climbing, and winter sports such as skiing.

Holidays
All religious holidays are celebrated. National Day is on 13 July.

News
News is available from Newslink.

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